Friday, May 22, 2020
Slavery, new energy sources, global trade, and technology all contributed to BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Industrial Revolution. Jane Burbank and Frederick Cooper emphasize the importance of slavery for the development of the Industrial revolution and capitalism. However, as James Carter, Richard Warren, and Robert Marks demonstrate, global trade and new technology were just as important factors as slavery because they increased both the efficiency of production and demand for British-made goods. Carter and Warren classically connect the idea of capitalism to the Industrial revolution because the Industrial Revolution created an influx of wealth that allowed people to, while the other historians donÃ¢â¬â¢t clearly connect the idea of capitalism to the IndustrialÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Burbank and Cooper then argue that due to this surge in food, people were able to use the land for other needs, such as manufacturing goods. Additionally, prior to the discovery and use of new energy sources, such as water energy and coal, all of the energy people had came from the sun. People mostly used trees as energy, burning them to get heat energy. This was considered the biological old regime. Efficiently, Marks argues that the discovery of coal energy was exactly what was needed to propel humans out of the biological old regime and into the Industrial revolution. The Industrial revolution could not have occurred without the extra energy provided by coal. Coal allowed for the population to grow because there was now more energy floating around. Carter and Warren both argue another essential use of coal for Britain was for powering their railroads and steamships. Prior to coal energy, the boats relied on winds to reach their destinations. Relying on wind takes a much longer amount of time to get places, so coal increased the productivity of global trade as well. In contrast, Burbank and Cooper do not emphasize the importance of coal. Burbank and Cooper focus more on the slave trade and less on coal, which really facilitated the slave trade in the first place. An additional important factor in the development of the Industrial revolution was global trade. Originally, India was the country that was making theShow MoreRelatedEssay on Industrial Revolution1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesenvironment. Industrial revolution was so fundamental that itÃ¢â¬â¢s often compared with the transition from farming to stock raising, which began several thousand years before the birth of Christ. Considering the uses of natural resources, can human history be dived up into three pieces of varying length; hundreds of thousands years before Ã¢â¬Å"the agricultural revolutionÃ¢â¬ , thousands of years between this and the Industrial revolution and the two hundreds years after the beginning of Industrial revolution. BeforeRead MoreIndustrial Revolution Essay766 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmerican Industrial Revolution In the 19th century, America became an industrial country, the powered machinery shifted the industry into mass production. The development of steam engines improved the transportation system, further, increased the production of iron and steel. The textile industries have begun to develop, and produce various products. The industrialization leads to accessible banking, further, deliver telegraph communication to many businesses through locomotive trains. This essayRead More Industrial Revolution Essay1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshuman culture since the advent of agriculture eight or ten thousand years ago, was the industrial revolution of eighteenth century Europe. The consequences of this revolution would change irrevocably human labor, consumption, family structure, social structure, and even the very soul and thoughts of the individual. This revolution involved more than technology; to be sure, there had been industrial quot;revolutionsquot; throughout European history and non-Eu ropean history. In Europe, for instanceRead MoreEssay on Industrial Revolution1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIndustrial Revolution Europe during the eighteenth century was at the height of the industrial revolution, none of which reached America. In New England the population was largely English, but America as a whole had more than 20 ethnic strains present, nowhere in Europe could such a heterogeneous mixture be found. America was unique in its political structure. Americans vested authority in personalities, rather than, as in England, in institutions of tradition. As a people they had been stripedRead MoreIndustrial Revolution Essay841 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages19th century, a period of industrial revolutions transformed the west as it is known and the people living there. The first and second industrial revolutions shaped the west as it is today through changes in manufacturing, labor, and the exchange of ideas and goods. Inventions and ideas of the time changed the way goods are made. Advances in manufacturing, whereas previously, families would work in their homes and rural farms with many workers, after the industrial revolutions, manufacturing was doneRead MoreIndustrial Revolution Essay734 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDue to the Industrial Revolution, many changes started occurring in this new era such as the factories began to use more mechanics, limiting skill needed to produce products as well as hastening the harvesting of raw materials. Secondarily there was a huge standard of living and wage drop in cities due to urbanization which occurred after the factories created an abundance of jobs. Also, there was a huge shift in the population and there was a massive population growth due to the excess food andRead MoreEssay on The Industrial Revolution1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Industrial Revolution Introduction to the Revolution The Industrial revolution was a time of drastic change marked by the general introduction of power-driven machinery. This change generally helped life, but it had its disadvantages as well. Pollution, such as Carbon Dioxide levels in the atmosphere rose, working conditions declined, and the number of women and children working increased. The government, the arts, literature, music, architecture and mans way of looking at life allRead MoreIndustrial Revolution Essay763 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ The Industrial Revolution The Agriculture Revolution was a time when people worked the land by using simple hand tools. By the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, most people in Western Europe and the United States lived on farms. The nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was based on farming and the making of goods by hand and trading. They lived in rural areas in little cottages lit with firelight and candles. They made their own clothes and grew their own food. The system of making your own clothes was called the putting out systemRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution Essay972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesConditions of laborers and the role of women in society has been constantly evolving over the course of history. However, these two major groups experienced the most drastic alterations during the Industrial Revolution. Between the 19th and early 20th centuries, laborers diversified in age, while labor conditions declined. During this same time period, the role of women was reinvented as females searched for work and changed their role within the family. To begin, industrialization was the instigatorRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution Essay847 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Industrial Revolution During the 1800s, phenomenal changes took place in America. These changes would impact our society incredibly for years to come and even still in the present. The major changes that took place were in transportation and industry. American society expanded so much in the early 1800s that it very well could have been the only time in history where this happened in such a short amount of time. From steamboats to railroads and from textile mills to interchangeable parts
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Alien registration records are an excellent source of family history information on U.S. immigrants who were not naturalized citizens. Record Type Immigration/Citizenship Location United States Time Period 1917 to 1918 and 1940 to 1944 Alien Registration Records Aliens (non-citizen residents) living in the United States were asked during two different historical periods to register with the U.S. Government. World War I Alien Registration Records Following the beginning of United States involvement in World War I, all resident aliens who had not been naturalized were required, as a security measure, to register with the U.S. Marshal nearest their place of residence. A failure to register risked internment or possible deportation. This registration occurred between November 1917 and April 1918. WWII Alien Registration Records, 1940-1944 The Alien Registration Act of 1940 (also known as the Smith Act) required the fingerprinting and registration of any alienage 14 and older living within or entering the United States. These records were completed from August 1, 1940, to March 31, 1944, and document over 5 million non-citizen residents of the United States during this period. Learning From Alien Registration Records 1917-1918: The following information was generally collected: Full name (including maiden name for females)Current residence and length of residencePlace of birthSpouseÃ¢â¬â¢s name and residenceChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s names, sex, and years of birthParentsÃ¢â¬â¢ names (including maiden name for mother), birthdates, and birthplacesNames, dates of birth, and current residence of siblingsWhether any male relatives serving in the military for/against USWhether registered for selective draftPrevious military or government serviceDate of immigration, name of vessel and port of arrivalWhether naturalized in another countryWhether reported/registered with a consul since 1 June 1914Whether applied for naturalization or took out first papers; if yes, when and whereWhether ever taken an oath of allegiance other than to the United StatesWhether ever arrested or detained on any chargeWhether held a permit to enter a forbidden areaSignaturePhotographDescription of registrantFull set of fingerprints 1940-1944: The two-page Alien Registration Form (AR-2) asked for the following information: NameName at time of entry to the USOther names usedAddressDate and place of birthCitizenship/NationalityGenderMarital statusRaceHeight WeightHair Eye ColorDate, port, vessel, and class of admission of last arrival in USDate of the first arrival in USNumber of years in the USUsual occupationPresent occupationName, address, and business of present employerMembership in clubs, organizations or societiesDates and nature of military or naval serviceWhether citizenship papers were filed and if so the date, place, and courtNumber of relatives living in the USArrest record, including date, place, and dispositionWhether or not affiliated with a foreign governmentSignatureFingerprintNot all registrants provided all information. Where To Get Alien Registration Records WWI Alien Registration files are scattered, and the majority are no longer extant. Existing files can often be found in state archives and similar repositories. Existing WWI alien registration records for Kansas; Phoenix, Arizona (partial); and St. Paul, Minnesota can be searched online. Other alien registration records are available in offline repositories, such as the 1918 Minnesota Alien Registration records at the Iron Range Research Center in Chisholm, MN. Check with your local or state genealogical society to learn what WWI alien registration records might be available for your area of interest. WWII Alien Registration (AR-2) files are available on microfilm from U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and can be obtained through a Genealogy Immigration Records Request. Unless you have the actual alien registration number from an alien registration card in your familys possession, or from a passenger list or naturalization document, you will want to begin by requesting a Genealogy Index Search. Important Alien Registration Forms AR-2 are only available for A-numbers 1 million to 5 980 116, A6 100 000 to 6 132 126, A7 000 000 to 7 043 999, and A7 500 000 to 7 759 142. If the subject of your request was born less than 100 years before the date of your request, you are generally required to provide documentary proof of death with your request. This might include a death certificate, a printed obituary, a photograph of the tombstone, or other document demonstrating that the subject of your request is deceased. Please submit copies of these documents, not originals, as they will not be returned. Cost Alien registration records (AR-2 forms) requested from USCIS cost $20.00, including shipping and photocopies. A genealogy index search is an additional $20.00. Please check the USCIS Genealogy Program for the most current pricing information. What to Expect No two Alien Registration Records are alike, nor are specific answers or documents guaranteed to be in each case file. Not all aliens answered every question. The turn-around time to receive these records averages about three to five months, so prepare to be patient.
Friday, May 8, 2020
Establishing equality by lowering the cost of college tuition My research question was stimulated by Ã¢â¬Å"The Life of PeasantsÃ¢â¬ from Life on a Medieval Barony and A Letter to my Nephew by James Baldwin. Throughout both articles equality and the idea of class systems are discussed thoroughly. James Baldwin talked about integration as meaning Ã¢â¬Å"we with love shall force our brothers to see themselves as they are, to cease fleeing from reality and begin the change it, for this is your homeÃ¢â¬ (Baldwin). Baldwin talks about the importance of integration and how integration can create equality. In his eyes, one can succeed by integrating and defeating the classic stereotypes, one can change his or her name for the better. Going along with class systems is Ã¢â¬Å"The Life of PeasantsÃ¢â¬ by William Stearns Davis. In the article, class systems are mentioned throughout and the people at the bottom are the forgotten ones. The article reads, Ã¢â¬Å"Assuredly the poor and hum ble seem much less interesting and command less attention. They have no splendors, no picturesque, fÃ ªtes or feudsÃ¢â¬ (Davis). The poor are referred to as unimportant just like the African Americans in BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s letter to his nephew. The talk about equality and the class systems led me to ask, if America lowered the cost of college tuition, would that help create equality for all Americans in the school system? America should decrease the cost of college tuition and in turn increase the equality among American citizens of all economicShow MoreRelatedA Teacher Unions Essay1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTeacher Unions have evolved over time and have been essential in education equality and reform. Some now question the motivation behind these unions and whether or not they are now a barrier to reform, rather than a assistant. This paper will explore the evolvement of not only Teacher Unions, but the purpose and motivation behind said unions. Two of the most predominately know n unions are American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association, NEA. History (Purpose) NEA wasRead MoreEducation response Essay example43180 Words Ã |Ã 173 Pagesremains inequitable. There is a strong correlation between social class and the likelihood of going to university generally and to the top universities particularly. Four private schools and one college get more of their students into Oxbridge than the combined efforts of 2,000 state schools and colleges. So there is a long way to go. Worse still, the progress of recent years is now at risk. widen access to ensure greater diversity in their student populations. Those on the equity side ofRead MoreStudent Audit Example Starbucks Essay12474 Words Ã |Ã 50 Pagesfrom Princeton University and an M.A. degree from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar (Starbucks.com, 2014, p. 1). Robert M. Gates Job Title Primary Employer Date Joined BoD Committees Shares/Options/Deferred Stock Units Chancellor College of William Mary Ã¢â¬â External Member May 2012 Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Ã¢â¬â (Vice Chair) 9,920 Units (Phx.corporate-ir.net, 2014, p. 55). All Non-employee directors are required to hold a minimum $480,000 in Company common stock (StarbucksRead MoreStrategic Human Resource Management72324 Words Ã |Ã 290 PagesImpact of Strategic Human Resource Management? Tools Available to help Measure Strategic Human Resource Management The Ethical Implications of Strategic Human Resource Management Introduction Main Ethical Issues in People Management and Development Equality and Diversity Advantages of an Ethical Approach to People Management and Development Promoting and Enforcing Ethical Behaviour Hard and Soft Human Resource Strategies The Strategic Approach to People Resourcing Introduction Employment FlexibilityRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words Ã |Ã 604 Pagesone-fourth of all managers and executives are women. Similar attention also was focused on other diverse groups of employees. So that all employees were given opportunities to grow and learn, the Bank of MontrealÃ¢â¬â¢s Institute of Learning was established at a cost exceeding $50 million. The goal of providing five days of training and education to every employee each year has been met for several years. To focus on performance, each department and every employee have HR managers participate in developing strategiesRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 PagesAsk your local representative for details! Collaborate with your colleagues, find a mentor, attend virtual and live events, and view resources www.WhereFacultyConnect.com Pre-loaded, ready-to-use assignments and presentations www.wiley.com/college/quickstart Technical Support 24/7 FAQs, online chat, and phone support www.wileyplus.com/support Your WileyPLUS Account Manager Training and implementation support www.wileyplus.com/accountmanager MAKE IT YOURS! Fundamentals of HumanRead MoreOverview of Hrm93778 Words Ã |Ã 376 Pagesdemanding that organizations accommodate their personal needs by instituting such programs as flexible work schedules, parental leave, child-care and elder-care assistance, and job sharing. The human resource department plays a central role in establishing and implementing policies designed to reduce the friction between organizational demands and family responsibilities. b. Increased complexity of the ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s job Management has become an increasingly complex and demanding job for many reasonsRead MoreStrategic Human Resource Management View.Pdf Uploaded Successfully133347 Words Ã |Ã 534 PagesCurrent practices in many organizations indicate that employees are viewed as valuable investments. However, some still view their employees as variable costs of production, while physical assets are treated as investments. When employees are viewed as variable costs, there is little recognition of the firmÃ ¢â¬â¢s contribution to their training or the costs of recruiting and training their replacements. Likewise, there is less incentive to provide training or make other investments in them. A respected humanRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesArrangements 245 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Social and Physical Context of Work 249 Employee Involvement 250 Examples of Employee Involvement Programs 251 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Linking Employee Involvement Programs and Motivation Theories 252 Using Rewards to Motivate Employees 252 What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 252 Ã¢â¬ ¢ How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees Through Variable-Pay Programs 253 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Flexible xii CONTENTS Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package 257 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intrinsic Rewards: Employee Recognition Programs 259 Summary andRead MoreProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words Ã |Ã 860 PagesPROJECT MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES, SECOND EDITION - PROJECT MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES, SECOND EDITION HAROLD KERZNER, Ph.D. Division of Business Administration Baldwin-Wallace College Berea, Ohio John Wiley Sons, Inc. This book is printed on acid-free paper. @ Copyright O 2006 by John Wiley Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Where do you consider yourself to be in the class system? Are you a member of the upper class, middle class, or lower class? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re a part of the upper class your associated with being rich or born in to a rich family. Then there is the working middle class also know as the Ã¢â¬Å" white collar workers.Ã¢â¬ Most people of our society would fit into this category of the class system. Lastly there is the lower class that consists of the homeless, those with low-paying jobs, and other who are struggling to survive. Most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t bother to think that these different classes could be leading toward social inequalities. Well, this is reality people are being treated differently because of where they stand on this class scale. Conflict pertaining to these differences occurs in our personal and professional aspects of our life. Many people believe that social class inequalities have been eliminated, however this issue continues to exist within the different classes d ue to a various number of reasons. One of the leading causes of this unjust behavior toward the targeted society is discrimination. Angela Locke provides an example of this in her article that is based on her personal experience. There is a clichÃ © that exists for the lower class community which generalizes that the Ã¢â¬Å"poor canÃ¢â¬â¢t be smart, and smart people arenÃ¢â¬â¢t poorÃ¢â¬ however this is entirely untrue. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s due to this prejudice point of view that the Kaur 2 lower class is being treated unfairly(pg 449). The peopleShow MoreRelatedSocial Inequality And Social Class Essay1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe idea of social inequality dates back since the time of our founding fathers. The mistreatment and unlawful equality and opportunity that these foreigners received became embedded into our historyÃ¢â¬âthis endless list includes, just to name a few, the Irish, Chinese, Jews, and most notably the African Americans (Blacks), who became slaves to the American people. Here in the United States, the current social class system is known as the class system, where families are distributed and placed intoRead MoreSocial Class and Inequality3198 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesSocial Class and Inequality Social inequality has been defined as a conflicting status within a society with regards to the individual, property rights, and access to education, medical care, and welfare programs. Ã Much of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s inequality can be attributed to the class status of a particular group, which has usually been largely determined by the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnicity or race (Macionis amp; Gerber, 2006). Ã The conflict perspective is an attempt to understand the group conflict thatRead MoreSocial Inequalities And Social Class1150 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSocial classes have been prominent in societies since the beginning of civilizations. These classes are shaped by the distribution of unequal opportunities amongst each division. Social classes can result from varying factors such as race, gender and wealth. Due to social classes, there comes social inequalities. Social inequalities are beneficial to people only at the top of the hierarchy. For those at the bottom, social inequalities has the opposite effect. Rather than the bottom of the hierarchyRead MoreSocial Class And Social Inequality1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesupon different evidence linking social class to where people live. Firstly, I will look at two approaches to determining social class, together with how class and social inequality are linked. Secondly, by reference to several key studies I will demonstrate that where people l ive is representative of their social class, and outline how disconnections are formed as a consequence. Finally, I will discuss how sporting opportunities are constrained to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s social class and place of residence. In theRead MoreIncome And Social Class Inequality1281 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesINCOME AND SOCIAL CLASS INEQUALITY IN AMERICA This paper will review and analyze the relationship between income inequality and society, and how social class brackets came to exist. We will also cover the factors that contribute to the downward mobility experienced by the middle and lower-class members of society in America. Ã¢â¬Æ' There is a very close relationship that exists between income inequality and social class. Many families experience set-backs as a result of the growing income inequality in AmericaRead MoreSocial Inequality Regarding Class1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages . . And in case you dont know, they want to tell you with a lethal combination of houses, cars and diamonds. (Fabrikant 2005)) Inequality in the United States is changing, and for the worse. People who are not wealthy are now competing to have the status of wealthy, which causes the wealthy to literally get wealthier while the middle class and upper middle class are going increasingly in debt trying to keep up with the wealthy. It has gotten somewhat easier for people who are not wealthy toRead MoreThe Affects Of Social Class Inequality On Higher Education1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Affects of Social Class Inequality on Higher Education Assignment 1: Literature Review 48-290 Researching Social Life Fall 2015 Professor: Mark Munsterhjelm Date submitted: 8 October 2015 Ashley Doung 104268427 1. Research Question The literature review addresses the following question: Does social class inequality affect higher education? The theoretical paradigm that is considered for this question is the Critical paradigm, in which is mainly qualitative and inductive. CriticalRead MoreThe Inequalities of the Social Class in the United States and How to Improve It1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat is social class you ask? Social class is a system created to categorize people by education, wealth and heredity. What are the different class systems you ask? There are several class classifications and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re Upper ClassÃ¢â¬âElite, Upper Middle Class, Lower Middle Class, Working Class and poor. In the united states and being a victim of Ã¢â¬Å" social class categorizingÃ¢â¬ is an issue that must be addressed and people must be made aware, because it seems as if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not going anywhere anytime soon soRead MoreAssess and explain the impact of social class on inequalities in educational outcomes .1783 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAssess and explain the impact of social class on inequalities in educational outcomes. A good education is vital in succeeding within many industries in the UK, from Business to Medicine, Politics to Art. It unfortunately does not come as a surprise that only 58.6% of students attained 5 or more GCSEÃ¢â¬â¢s at grades A* to C (Department for Education 2012). In comparison, albeit falling this year on previous years, 94.4% of students in private schools attained the same results (The Independent 2012a)Read MoreSocial Class And Gender Inequality972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEquality has been and will always be a problem in our world. Not everyone can choose to have the job they want, do what they want or simply live the life they want. There is inequality in matters of race, sexual orientation, social class and gender. I know that both genders face some sort of gender inequality. While browsing through the internet, I saw four advertisements that depicted women in a sexist and discriminatory way. I chose to do my essay on these advertisements because I find them relatable
Critically Assess Whether Strategic Hrm Leads to Ã¢â¬ËHigh PerformanceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Free Essays
Essay Question 1: Ã¢â¬ËCritically assess whether strategic HRM leads to Ã¢â¬Ëhigh performanceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Introduction There is a controversy whether the Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) leads to Ã¢â¬Ëhigh performanceÃ¢â¬â¢. A general idea of SHRM is that Ã¢â¬Å"the linkage of management and deployment of the individual within the firm to the business overall and its environment whereas HRM is the activities that take place under this area. Ã¢â¬ Truss and Gratton (1994). We will write a custom essay sample on Critically Assess Whether Strategic Hrm Leads to Ã¢â¬ËHigh PerformanceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ or any similar topic only for you Order Now It spotlights on long-term strategy. Two theoretical perspectives to the Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) will be introduced and compared to determine whether they manage to Ã¢â¬Ëhigh performanceÃ¢â¬â¢ or not. First, the Universalist approach is Ã¢â¬Ëone best wayÃ¢â¬â¢ of dealing human resource to improve business performance. Second, the Contingency approach is to align HR policies and practices with the details of business strategy to create a positive impact on business. In addition, two examples: a large company and a medium-size company will be used to illustrate both approaches practically. At the same time, there are issues associate with theoretical perspectives that need to be discussed. Such issues are the implementation problems as well as the measurement problems. After all, the question will be answered with analysing all of the above. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be identified by gathering views of researchers. To the final stage, both approaches are being recognised if the linkage is existence to Ã¢â¬Ëhigh performanceÃ¢â¬â¢ and to the level of measure that are being noticed. Different approaches to SHRM * Universalist approach A Universalist approach is known as Ã¢â¬Ëbest practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ human resource management (HRM). This approach describes there is Ã¢â¬Ëone best wayÃ¢â¬â¢ to manage people in order to improve organizational performance. It argues that all organizations, regardless of sector, size or country, will benefit from identifying, gaining commitment to and implementing a set of best HRM practices. The job of a researcher is to identify what the practices are, and a job of HR professional to implement them. For example, a research from Delery and Doty (1996) identify certain practices that improve organizational performance. The detailed components are Ã¢â¬Ëhigh performance work systems (HPWS)Ã¢â¬â¢ Berg (1999); Appelbaum et al (2000), Ã¢â¬Ëhigh commitment managementÃ¢â¬â¢ Walton (1985); Guest (2001a, 2001b) and Ã¢â¬Ëhigh involvement managementÃ¢â¬â¢ Wood (1999a). Another researcher by Jeffrey Pfeffer (1998) identifies that seven universally applicable practices will benefit all firms. The components include: 1) Employment security, 2) Careful hiring, 3) Self-managed teams and decentralized decision-making, 4) Comparatively high compensation, 5) Extensive training, 6) Low status distinctions and barriers, 7) Extensive sharing of financial and performance information. The implication is that when a coherent bundle of HR practices is outlined, the integrated HR practices will impact positively on organizational performance. The Ã¢â¬Ëbest practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM sees there is Ã¢â¬Ëone best wayÃ¢â¬â¢ of managing people and that is appropriate across all circumstances. * Contingency Approach On the other hand, the Contingency approach is known as Ã¢â¬Ëbest-fitÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM. It takes account of factors such as organizational size, location, sector, strategy and the nature of work. Baird and MeshoulamÃ¢â¬â¢s (1998) model advocates that HRM approaches will differ giving to different life-cycle stages. These life cycle stages ranges from start-up to maturity. While an organization is growing and maturing over time, it becomes gradually complex. Therefore, more sophisticated HR structures and policies are needed. This approach focuses on two types of Ã¢â¬ËfitÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëline management integrationÃ¢â¬â¢. The first type is Ã¢â¬ËExternal fitÃ¢â¬â¢ and it is commonly known as Ã¢â¬Ëvertical fitÃ¢â¬â¢. It is in coherence and alignment with business strategy and external market factors. When HR policies and practices are aligned to strategic focus, performance will improve. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s (1985) strategic options on 1) Cost Leadership, 2) Differentiation and Innovation and 3) Focus are adopted. The second type is Ã¢â¬ËInternal fitÃ¢â¬â¢ and it can also interpret to Ã¢â¬Ëhorizontal fitÃ¢â¬â¢. HR policies and practices are all fit together so that they are in coherence. They are also mutually reinforcing and are applied continuously. Jeffrey PfefferÃ¢â¬â¢s (1998) seven practices are adopted. Lastly, Ã¢â¬ËLine management integrationÃ¢â¬â¢ is when line managers act as a critical character in implementing HRM strategy. Best-fitÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM suggests that the best to manage people will vary depending on organizational circumstances, and hence, the link to business strategy is key. Empirical evidence of SHRM model * A large company Ã¢â¬â Tarmac The UK quarrying company Tarmac has over 12500 employees at present. The operations function is key to overall companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. It needs the support of finance managers, zone managers and H R managers. A finance manager delivers financial and management accounts to contribute the strategic decision-making process by forecasting financial performance. A zone manager manages operational performance. They meet and improve targets for cost, quality, delivery, safety and business ethics shown in key performance indicators (KPIs). Lastly a HR manager ensures business managers apply HR policies and procedures. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to achieve objectives by motivating all individuals working together as one team across the business units and functions. Each objective has its strategies. The followings practices are to achieve Ã¢â¬ËEngage employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAct ResponsiblyÃ¢â¬â¢ objectives. Firstly, Tarmac focuses on a high level of employee involvement and encourages high employee commitment to the organization so that workers feel they are trusted and treated in an open and positive attitude. For example, employees regularly discuss with managers about their viewpoints within development teams. This helps workers feel part of the wider team, strengthens employee engagement and commitment to the company. Secondly, team-working practices create a closer supervision and a flat hierarchy. A coaching style manager develops employees to manage themselves rather than to manage each task. EmployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestions are offered, and this contributes to improvements in organizational performance. An example of Tarmac targets and measures a decline in waste. In 2010, eighteen workshop-training sessions were held for all site employees on CO2 awareness and energy. All district managers were involved in the programme. Some external experts from Carbon Trust were also invited to support the rollout of the training programme. As a result, Tarmac gained benefit from 500 energy and CO2 reduction. Overall, Tarmac adopted a high commitment strategy to meet the objectives. Therefore, it improved the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. * A small-medium size company Ã¢â¬â i-LEVEL i-Level is one of the most innovative digital media companies and is ranked the Ã¢â¬ËSunday Times 100 best companies to work forÃ¢â¬â¢ in 2004. It has a size of workforce of 60 employees. The i-Level company has a high level of financial performance. There was a 33 per cent increase in earnings per annum. Their guiding principles are used as a framework. This is to ensure the internal fit and the external fit of company. The company is at the growing stage which a lot of the recruitment effort is on discovering the potential staff. -Level frequently seeks appropriate employees to be supported to work with the company. To fit HR policies and practices together, i-Level uses physical arrangements to remove top-down hierarchy in order to encourage employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ participation, communication, creativity, self-managed teams and organisational values. As a result, a complete, open plan office is the environment where employees conduct their normal day-to-day operations. Moreover, i-Level sees pay is significant for performance. 15 per cent of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s pre-tax profit is kept for performance bonuses from 2003 to 2004. Meanwhile, the company argues pay is not their primary motivating force. On the other hand, the company aligns with business strategy and external environment by providing training courses for technical skills in media advertising. The company also offers an unusual training budget. There is an annual allowance provided for personal training and development purposes that are no obvious relation with work. The belief is to develop the skills and interests of workers in ways not studied before. This is expected to enhance i-level workersÃ¢â¬â¢ innovative thoughts at work through practices outside the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s work area. To summaries, i-LEVEL achieves competitive advantage through innovation and which competes in very tight labour markets. It adopted PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic option of Ã¢â¬ËFocusÃ¢â¬â¢ and PfefferÃ¢â¬â¢s 7 practices to enhance the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Additional issues to reflect * Problems of implementation Line managers are central HRM performers in the organization, and they play a vital role in implementation of HR policies and practices. They influence their teamÃ¢â¬Ës performance in a direct manner. A number of factors account for the line management problem. Firstly, it seems there is devolution to line managers. For instance, line managers do not want the responsibility of being a line manager or do not have enough time to deal with it accurately. They might not have the skills to handle HR issues successfully or are unaware of recent developments in view of HRM. Some managers do not consider a long-term view of the company or are inefficient for making policy in this area. Secondly, McGovern et al (1997), Marchington (2001) and Hutchinson and Purcell (2003) identify there are differences between Ã¢â¬ËespousedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËactualÃ¢â¬â¢ policies that are relatively recognized to line managers. For example, some policies are normative rather than positive. Some descriptions of policies and practices are in general terms rather than analytical about actual situations. Hence, managers are unable to implement them specifically to meet the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Furthermore, a broader issue, the line manager jobs in firms become progressively complex due to new firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ structures. For instance, virtual and network companies have less clear line manager characters than the layered hierarchical company. One observable implication is pressure for reducing the size of the HR department. There will be a cut down in numbers of HR professionals. Ultimately, these factors all affect the organizational performance due to unsuccessful implementation of HR policies and practices. * Problems of measurement Fitzgerald (1991) and Neely (1998) stated that performance measurement is a key issue in guaranteeing the effective implementation of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. However, using inadequate measurements is poor in supporting managementsÃ¢â¬â¢ business objectives. The followings are the circumstances. Scientists use large-scale data groups made self-completed questionnaires. This will lead to two problems. First of all, there is dependence on one person, to represent the whole group. Secondly, there is dependence on a design of questionnaires. For example, respondents are answering yes or no questions rather than giving thoughts and opinions. This type of questions may generate a less accurate result. Moreover, there is uncertainty of how the data should be gathered, presented and analysed. The major problem is mis-reporting single respondents. Respondents may have limited knowledge of the area and use of policies. Furthermore, the measures of performance commonly take account of the financial performance, whereas there is a few findings focus on the broader issue of employee attitudes and well-being. Equally, there are matters to the range of HR practices. For instance, a report shows statistics of whether a company has self-managed teams, some may look at the proportion of workers running in a self-managed team. Lastly, Atkinson (2005) suggests that the measurement of productivity in the service sector can be exceptionally challenging. It is always easy to get typical, comparable financial statistics. To sum up, the measurement of data are related to the level of relevance to business performance. Critical analysis of the beyond * Best practice Pros ; Cons Research states there is a positive link between the HR practices and organisational performance. Firstly, Huselid (1995, p. 667) discovered that Ã¢â¬Ëthe degree of returns for investments in High Performance Work Systems is significantÃ¢â¬â¢. In fact, Ã¢â¬ËA one standard deviation rise in High Performance Work Systems practices is associated with a comparative 7. 5 per cent drop in labour turnover. On Ã¢â¬Ëper employeeÃ¢â¬â¢ base, $27,044, $18,641 and $3814 more in sales, more in market value and profits respectively. Secondly, the workplace employee relation survey (Cully et al 1999) indicates that there is 14 per cent of organisations adopted high commitment strategy. In contrast, researcher (Delery 1998) also emphasized Ã¢â¬ËdeadlyÃ¢â¬â¢ bundles of practices need to be avoided. For example, it occurs to managers giving reward based on individual performance while they are working as a team. Furthermore, Boxall and Purcell (2003, p. 64) commented while multi-national companies make the effort standardise their practices across nations, national perspective and organisational sectoral perspectives show criticism on the effectiveness of these practices. Marchington and Grulis (2000, p. 1117) argue the most common example is in labour intensive organisations recognise costs are expensive when they use these practices. To summaries the best practice approach, GuestÃ¢â¬â¢s (1987) argues that there is no best practice. At the same time, he also suggests a set of best practices such as high commitment management is the route to survival of UK business. This leads to an argument that in order to enhance company performance, managers must alter their HR policies and practices to the framework that is operational. The interpretation comes to Ã¢â¬Ëbest-fitÃ¢â¬â¢ approach. * Best-fit Pros ; Cons Thompson (2000) conducted two studies of firms in the UK aerospace industry. His first study in 1997 showed that with higher levels of value added per worker encourages greater diffusion of innovative working practices with their non-management employees. These organisations are towards to more heavily engaged in specialist production for niche markets and hired technical and professional workers. The second study in 1999 showed evidence that organizations introduced a larger number of high performance work practices had much enhanced business performance. As a result, companies moving from less than five to more than six innovative practices created a 34 per cent increase in value added per worker. On the other hand, Miles and Snow (1984) align suitable managerial types to three genetic strategies of prospector, defender and analyser. If managerial properties and skills are aligned to company strategy, there will be a higher level of link to organisational performance. Thomas and Ramaswamy (1996) offered such support. As a result, performance in aligned firms was statistically excellent. In comparison, (Purcell 1999 p. 35) outlines that a number of successful organisations features that are unable to model. These are the cultural norms that have been developed gradually over a long period associated with accomplishment. It is easy to identify the key factors that drive to success. Especially when the organisations are large and complex. Imaginably the major problem is that many organisations exist inside complex external environments with multiple contingencies that are not to be ignored or recognized. * Comparing both approaches Each approach has advantages evidence and disadvantages evidence. It could be argued that different approaches can apply in different sectors. For example, Guest (2001) advocates that there is the possibility that a high commitment management is most applicable in manufacturing i. e. Tarmac, while strategic choice for fitting with business strategy, is more credible in the service sector i. . i-LEVEL. As a whole, critically discuss the link between SHRM and performance. Evidence from Patterson et al (1997) examined sixty-seven manufacturing businesses in the UK for a period. The outcomes were 19 per cent of profitability and 18 per cent of the variation in productivity could be certified to HRM practices. This demonstrated HRM practices has a positive impact on organisational performance. C onclusion In summary, SHRM consists of a number of practices and is an organization level analysis of how HRM systems impact on performance. Two theoretical perspectives outline different views. The Ã¢â¬Ëbest-practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ approach defines there is Ã¢â¬Ëone best wayÃ¢â¬â¢ of managing people. It is appropriate across all circumstances. Whereas Ã¢â¬Ëbest-fitÃ¢â¬â¢ approach terms the best to manage people will change depending on organizational circumstances. It highlights the essence of linking business strategy. Tarmac was used as an example. It applied the Ã¢â¬Ëbest practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ approach and adopted a high commitment strategy to meet the objectives. Hence Tarmac improved its firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. I-Level was used an example to describe the competitive advantage the company had achieved through innovation while competing in extremely tight labour market. It adopted PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic option of Ã¢â¬ËFocusÃ¢â¬â¢ and PfefferÃ¢â¬â¢s 7 practices to enhance the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Empirical evidences show both organisations are successful with adopting different approaches to their specific, targeted firms. These firms had a positive impact on performance. This can be concluded that SHRM has a clear link to business performance practically. In depth, other issues such as implementation and measurement roblems are considered. Problems of implementation affect the organizational performance due to unsuccessful implementation of HR policies and practices in line management. On the other hand, problems of measurement are valued on the basis of how easy and difficult the data is to represent and most importantly the level of relevance to business performance. If the r elevance is slight, it may have little or no impact on business performance. In the final stage of comparing both approaches, many researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ point of views is gathered. Ã¢â¬ËBest-practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ approach has advantages and disadvantages. It seems to argue that high commitment management is the route to successful business performance. On the other hand, the advantages and disadvantages of Ã¢â¬Ëbest-fitÃ¢â¬â¢ approach suggest that applying this approach can be rigid and inflexibility due exists of complex external environments. Furthermore, in recent arguments, the product labour market seems to be emerged to a new post-industrial age where employers will tend to hire self-employed workers to carry out specific, time-limited projects for companies. This is due to the prediction of radical change. It can lead to a view that Ã¢â¬Ëbest-fitÃ¢â¬â¢ approach should to be managed appropriately. This means practices should be adequate in different companyÃ¢â¬â¢s life-cycle stage and align with different strategies. So that, it can feasibly enhance the organizational performance. Finally, strategic human resources management gives evidences, views, researches and facts to enhance organizational performance. However, the degree of high performance in context varies in different organizations under their circumstances. Hence, it does not necessary impact to Ã¢â¬ËhighÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. How to cite Critically Assess Whether Strategic Hrm Leads to Ã¢â¬ËHigh PerformanceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Papers
Question: Describe about the Design a Fuel-Efficient Stove for Firewood and Charcoal. Answer: Introduction The purpose of report is to investigate on the use of fuel-efficient stove design to reduce amount of firewood and charcoal, which are required by cook stove. It will also explore the alternative fuel sources for cooking. In Mayukwayukwa, Zambia, cooking is basically done on the stoves which is fuelled by firewood as well as charcoal. The total volumes of fuel, which is used for purpose of cooking causes deforestation within the area (David et al., 2016). The women within the forest, which raises safety concerns for them, collect the firewood. Burning of charcoal in the household of Zambia creates health, livelihood as well as environmental problems among people (Gallagher et al., 2016). This study is taken to identify technical solutions of the problem, which can induce a large-scale change. The report provides with a design justification of fuel-efficient stove, research on design information as well as detailed design solutions. Project Justification The project report justifies the problems and issues that people are facing due to use of charcoal and firewood for cooking purpose. In the household, poor people are burning biomass energy in order to meet with their cooking requirements (Anhalt Holanda, 2013). The open fires are not efficient to convert energy in the form heat. Collection of this fuel and woods from the forest of Zambia takes an hour a day. The other issues of open fires are emission of smoke, which cause respiratory diseases, natural re-growth of natural resources and environmental issues (Masekameni, Makonese Annegarn, 2016). Those issues are addressed with design of a fuel-efficient stove for cooking purpose to reduce use of charcoal. The current requirements of the community are to reduce smoke, improve energy efficiency as well as reduce drudgery-cooking duties. The stove is designed for rural as well as urban population of Zambia. In Zambia, cooking is considered as responsibility of the women to spend amount of time in preparation of food. There is a requirement of improved fuel-efficient stoves so that they can reduce smoke production as well as harmful gases in the households (Prinsloo, Dobson Mammoli, 2016). It reduces use of biomass by approximately 60 percent, reduction of cooking life cycle as well as safety in households. Currently, the community of Zambia designs a fuel-efficient stove for the households to reduce waste wood and reduction of health problems (Mapelli Mungwe, 2013). The problems and issues are required to address so that it enhances energy as well as food security among the population of Zambia. Preliminary research Primary energy data sources Hanna, R., Duflo, E., Greenstone, M. (2016). Up in smoke: The influence of household behavior on the long-run impact of improved cooking stoves.American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,8(1), 80-114. For doing research on use of fuel-efficient stove in cooking in households, data are used for this study are collected from Living Conditions Monitoring Survey (LCMS), Zambia which are being conducted by Central Statistical Office. LCMS provides with a good data on the energy use of household. Even the data are making possible in order to construct a variable for total amount of charcoal as well as cooking gases spent in the cooking purpose. Then, the data from LCMS are compared with total actual household expenditures so that it helps to investigate importance of energy within the household costs. The data on the energy use are appeared in form of appliances required to own by people. The report on households are required to identify which is required to own such as gas stove, electric stove etc for purpose of cooking. The report summarizes the harmful effects of the cooking fuels in the life of people. The use of modern cooking fuels as well as stoves describes the requirement of fuel-efficient stove. This modern cooking solution reduces health risks as well as loss of time, which are suffered by women. It gives description of cost as well as characteristics of the fuels, which helps to identify use of technology for cooking. Secondary energy or fuel sources Kshirsagar, M. P., Kalamkar, V. R. (2014). A comprehensive review on biomass cookstoves and a systematic approach for modern cookstove design.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,30, 580-603. In this source, over 98 percent of the households of Zambia are reported to use of charcoal as well as wood as their main sources of energy for cooking purpose. The fuel-efficient stove is designed based on some of considerations such as social, technical as well as economical. Before take the decision of designing stove, the users do in-depth analysis on cooking practices, type of fuel used as well as functional requirements of the stove. The information in the source helps to design the fuel-efficient stove as it defines the first step is to finalize the design parameters such as initial physical system. It is based on type of fuel, combustion as well as heat transfer. The next information that it gives is to model as well as analyze different components of the fuel-efficient stove to design the proposed stove properly. Modeling of the components of the stove is done in order to formulate equations so that it uses to identify behavior of the actual component of stoves. Design concept The design of fuel-efficient stove is to reduce amount of firewood and charcoal. It will also use to improve emission of smoke, natural re-growth of natural resources as well as environmental issues. The design of the stove reduces the use of charcoal by women for purpose of cooking. The following two sections describe a detailed description of fuel-efficient stove with the issues, which are required to investigate in development of design. Description and sketch In Zambia, new rocket stove is used to reduce emission of smoke, use of charcoal and makes it fuel-efficient to the households. The design of rocket stove is such that it consists of durable metal alloy liner, which is surrounded by insulating layer as well as metal container (Zulu Richardson, 2013). The improved in efficiency as well as higher burning temperature of this rocket stove reduces use of biomass energy for purpose of cooking. Small twigs are used with three rocks method to reduce the time of gathering of fuel. The combustion chamber is being insulated so that it keeps fire hot in order to burn the wood (Chanda, 2015). It reduces smoke emission. The rocket stove is made up of fuel letter L, the fuel is being fed in combustion chamber. The way to push the fuel into combustion chamber ensures that the fuel is being fed into the rocket stove at correct rate and there is clean combustion (Sparrevik et al., 2013). There is feed opening to pass air through the burning fuel as too much of air cools the fire. Due to moving of air through burning fuel, it assists to remain the fire above 650 degree for absolute combustion. There is a skirt, which surrounds the pot (Hanna, Duflo Greenstone, 2016). The gap between pot as well as skirt forces the fuel to scratch against the sides of pot. It increases in transfer of heat. Figure 1: Sketch of Rocket Stove (Source: Hanna, Duflo Greenstone, 2016, pp-91) Issues for further investigation The design of a fuel-efficient stove such as rocket stove is required to properly designed. As an inefficient stove should use of wood, therefore it causes economic issues. If the design of the stove is not proper, then it takes more time to cook (Khudadad, Ali Jan, 2013). A properly designed rocket stove will use of 75 percent of less wood. An inefficient stove should create large amount of smoke. It causes environmental issues such as the trees and plants are affected. The smoke from the wood is causing health issues such as asthma, heart diseases, cancer and others. It is estimated that most of people are killed annually due to wood smoke (Prinsloo, Dobson Mammoli, 2016). Improved design of fuel-efficient stove is almost 100 percent combustion. It is smoke free except at the starting when the woods are pushed in the fire. Therefore, an efficient design of rocket stove will overcome with the identified issues. Conclusion It is concluded from analyzing the design report of a fuel-efficient stove, it reduces amount of firewood as well as charcoal. It is explored as the alternative fuel sources for cooking. Most of the population of Zambia is using charcoal for cooking, but burning of charcoal in the household influences on health, livelihood as well as environment. The main purpose of this report is to reduce smoke, improve energy efficiency as well as reduce drudgery-cooking duties. In order to meet with the project purpose, new rocket stove is being used to reduce smoke as well as charcoal use. This stove becomes a fuel-efficient households stove. Design of the store should be perfect otherwise, it would create large amount of smoke, not only that an inefficient stove will take more time to cook. An improved as well as efficient design of the fuel-efficient stove will give 100 percent rate of combustion. References Anhalt, J., Holanda, S. (2013). Policy for subsidizing efficient stoves. Chanda, J. (2015). SEI_Transforming Household Energy Practices Among Charcoal Users in Lusaka Zambia; a User Centred Approach_Apr 2013. David, L. I., Beltramo, T., Blalock, G., Cotterman, C., Simons, A. (2016). What Impedes Efficient Adoption of Products? Evidence from Randomized Sales Offers for Fuel-Efficient Cookstoves in Uganda. Gallagher, M., Beard, M., Clifford, M. J., Watson, M. C. (2016). Energy for Sustainable Development. Hanna, R., Duflo, E., Greenstone, M. (2016). Up in smoke: The influence of household behavior on the long-run impact of improved cooking stoves.American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,8(1), 80-114. Khudadad, N., Ali, B., Jan, K. (2013). Measuring the impact of low carbon technologies and products on domestic fuel consumption.Renewable energy,49, 115-118. Kshirsagar, M. P., Kalamkar, V. R. (2014). A comprehensive review on biomass cookstoves and a systematic approach for modern cookstove design.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,30, 580-603. Mapelli, F., Mungwe, J. N. (2013). Modern Energies Services for Cooking: from Improved Cook-Stoves to Domestic and Community Biogas Based Systems. InRenewable energy for unleashing sustainable development(pp. 43-74). Springer International Publishing. Masekameni, D., Makonese, T., Annegarn, H. J. (2016, March). Performance evaluation of three charcoal stoves. InDomestic Use of Energy (DUE), 2016 International Conference on the(pp. 1-7). Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Prinsloo, G., Dobson, R., Mammoli, A. (2016). Model based design of a novel Stirling solar micro-cogeneration system with performance and fuel transition analysis for rural African village locations.Solar Energy,133, 315-330. Sparrevik, M., Field, J. L., Martinsen, V., Breedveld, G. D., Cornelissen, G. (2013). Life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of biochar implementation in conservation agriculture in Zambia.Environmental science technology,47(3), 1206-1215. Zulu, L. C., Richardson, R. B. (2013). Charcoal, livelihoods, and poverty reduction: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.Energy for Sustainable Development,17(2), 127-137.